VEGAN E NUMBERS

Below is a list of the most disputed e-numbers.

R  = usually or always animal
Y  = mostly vegetable, but can sometimes be animal

E101Riboflavin (lactoflavin)Is made synthetically or by means of micro-organisms. Can in theory be extracted from milk, but that is far too expensive and is not done.
E104Quinoline yellowA purely synthetic colorant.
R-E120Carmine, CochinealExtraction from dried scales
E153CarbonIs made from burned organic material. Actually always vegetable (charcoal). Theoretically also from burned meat, but this is not done.
E160These are vegetable yellow dyes, such as carotene (carrots), lycopene (tomatoes) and paprika extract. Beta carotenes can also be made synthetically, but there are also no animal ingredients in them.
E161CanthaxanthinIs extracted from the chanterelle (mushroom) or synthetically from beta carotene. Formerly from lobsters or the feathers of flamingos.
Y- E234NisinIs a protein produced by bacteria. One of the possible production methods is that the bacteria is grown in milk.
E236Formic acidSynthetic. Occurs in ants, but is not won out.
E252Potassium nitrate
E270Lactic acidIs made from sugars by bacteria. Does not occur in milk, but in yoghurt and other sour milk products. However, as an additive for commercial use, it is produced by bacteria that grow on waste from the sugar industry.
E304Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid i) Ascorbyl palmitate ii) Ascorbyl stearateCan in principle be extracted from vitamin C (bacterial) and palmitic acid. That is commercially always vegetable (palm oil), but can also come from animal fat. The latter is, however, very expensive and therefore illogical.
E306-8 Tocopherols (vitamin E)Are extracted from vegetable oil. Extraction from animal oil (fish) is too expensive, because the concentrations in these oils are much lower than in vegetable oil.
E312Dodecyl gallatePossibly animal because of the fatty acid used. Commercially, animal fat is probably not used, but it is possible.
E322LecithinSoy and for a small percentage for special purposes from chicken eggs.
E325-7 Lactates (lactic acid salts)See E270 above.
E341 iiitricalcium phosphatePhosphates can be extracted from bones, but as far as we know, this is not the case commercially.
E375Nicotinic acid (vitamin B3)Is made from plant sources or yeast. Also synthetic. Can theoretically be extracted from liver, but that is far too expensive.
E422GlycerolIs made synthetically from petroleum or using bacteria from sugar. Can also be made from animal or vegetable fat, but that is much more expensive and probably not done commercially.
R-E430Polyoxyethylene-8-stearate (stearic acid)It is difficult to determine whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable and producers usually do not know it either.
R-E431Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate (stearic acid)It is difficult to determine whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable and producers usually do not know it either.
R-E432Polyoxyethylene-20-sorbitan monolaurate (lauric acid)It is difficult to determine whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable and producers usually do not know it either.
R-E433Polyoxyethylene-20-sorbitan mono-oleate (oleic acid)It is difficult to determine whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable and producers usually do not know it either.
R-E434Polyoxyethylene-20-sorbitan monopalmitate (palmitic acid)It is difficult to determine whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable and producers usually do not know it either.
R-E435Polyoxyethylene-20-sorbitan monostearate (stearic acid)It is difficult to determine whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable and producers usually do not know it either.
R-E436Polyoxyethylene-20-sorbitan tristearate (stearic acid)It is difficult to determine whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable and producers usually do not know it either.
Y-E442Ammonium phosphatidesIn practice, E442 can be used by everyone, since the fatty acids are actually only extracted from rapeseed oil. The use of animal fat, including pork fat, can not be excluded for 100%.
Y-E445Glycerol esters of wood rosinContains glycerol, so see 422.
Y-
E470
Salts of fatty acidsIt is difficult to find out whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable, and producers usually do not know it either.
Y-E471Synthetic fatsIt is difficult to find out whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable, and producers usually do not know it either.
Y-E472 Synthetic fatsIt is difficult to find out whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable, and producers usually do not know it either.
Y-E473Sugar esters of fatty acidsIt is difficult to find out whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable, and producers usually do not know it either.
Y-E474Sugar glyceridesCombination of sugar with fats. It is difficult to find out whether the fats are animal or vegetable and producers usually do not know it either.
Y-E475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acidsIt is difficult to determine whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable and producers usually do not know it either.
E476Polyglycerol polyricinoleateSynthetic grease made with castor oil (vegetable).
 Y-E477Propylene glycol esters of fatty acidsIt is difficult to determine whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable and producers usually do not know it either.
Y-E478Glycerol and polypropylene glycol esters of lactic acid and fatty acidsIt is difficult to determine whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable and producers usually do not know it either.
Y-E479 and 479b Thermally heated soy oil, esterified with fatty acidsIt is difficult to determine whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable and producers usually do not know it either.
Y-E481-82Sodium / calcium stearoyl lactylateMixture of lactic acid and stearic acid, a fatty acid. It is difficult to determine whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable and producers usually do not know it either.
Y-E483Stearyl tartrateMixture of tartaric acid and stearic acid, a fatty acid. It is difficult to determine whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable and producers usually do not know it either.
Y-E484Stearyl citrateMixture of citric acid and stearic acid, a fatty acid. It is difficult to find out whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable, and producers usually do not know it either.
Y-E491-95Compounds of sorbitol (a vegetable substance) with various fatty acidsIt is difficult to find out whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable, and producers usually do not know it either.
R-E542Bone mealMade from bones of slaughter animals (cattle, chickens, pigs, fish). Because of the BSE crisis these days, cattle are no longer often seen.
R-E570-73 Stearic acid and stearatesIt is difficult to determine whether this fatty acid is animal or vegetable and producers usually do not know it either.
E585Iron (II) lactateContains iron and that could be taken out of blood, but it is expensive and cumbersome. Lactic acid is made commercially with bacteria from molasses.
E620-25Sodium glutamate and other glutamatesNormally made with microorganisms. Partly also from soy and seaweed. Theoretically also from milk, eggs or other animal protein, but the levels are lower than in soy and it is much more expensive.
E626-29Guanylic acid and guanylatesEspecially extracted from yeast, but in part also from sardines or synthetic.
R-E630-35Inosinic acid and inosinatesEspecially extracted from meat and sardines. Is also made synthetically or (increasingly) with bacteria.
E636 MaltolNormally extracted from malt, but can also be obtained by heating cow’s milk.
R-E640GlycineIs made from gelatin, so from bones (see above). Partly also synthetic, but that is more expensive.
R-E901BeeswaxMade by bees.
R-E904ShellacSecretion product of lice. The lice itself are often trapped in the lacquer, but the product itself does not contain lice.
 R-E913LanolinA fat-like sheep secretion product (to keep their wool water-repellent).
R-E920-21Cysteine ​​and cystineWon from proteins, especially from her (mostly from horses, but also from cows, people and pigs).
E927bUreaMade chemically. Could also be extracted from urine but that is much more difficult.
R-E966LactitolMade from (cow) milk sugar.
R-E1000Cholic acidFrom bovine bile.
 R-E1105LysozymeA protein from chicken eggs.
Y-E1517 Glycerol diacetate (diacetine)Contains glycerol, so see 422.
E1518Glycerol triacetate (triacetin)Contains glycerol, so see 422.


Fatty acids

Fats consist of glycerol and usually 3 fatty acids. This applies to all animal and vegetable fats. Fats can be split into glycerol and the loose fatty acids. These are purified and all sorts of synthetic fats and fatty substances can be made from this. These often function as emulsifier, making it possible to mix fats with water. In the body these substances are broken down and processed as normal fat.

The problem is the origin of the fatty acids. This can not be traced in the final product. Animal and vegetable fats are chemically 100% identical. The producer usually makes the fatty acids from the cheapest fat. This will be vegetable fat in almost all cases, but the use of animal fat is not excluded.

As a consumer it is impossible to determine the origin of the fats. Incidentally, the producer can often not tell, nor can it be demonstrated with chemical analyzes. Only the raw material supplier can know, but the consumer usually can not find out. To be sure, these additives should therefore not be used.

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